Australia

Australia has seen its performances plummet ever since Sydney 2000, and the 10th place at London 2012 was a warning light. For Aussies, striving for an improved performance in Rio is a question of honour.

Swimming

Origin
It has existed since the Stone Age, but only became an organised sport in the early 19th century.
Rules and Objective
Swimmers start from blocks after the starting pistol is fired. Backstroke is the only stroke where swimmers start in the water rather than blocks.

Athletics

Origin
Athletics are among the oldest of all sports and their roots can be traced to the ancient Greek Olympics.
Rules and Objective
The three main athletic events consist of running, jumping and throwing.

Track Cycling

Origin
Track races existed as early as 1870 and was included in the inaugural Olympics Games in 1896.
Rules and Objective
There are five types of track race at the Olympics: keirin, omnium, sprint, team sprint and team pursuit.

Rowing

Origin
The all-time Olympic discipline began as a sport in the 17th and early 18th centuries, with the Oxford-Cambridge university boat race.
Rules and Objective
The two main types of rowing are sweeping, where rowers each use a single oar, and sculling where they use two.

Sailing

Origin
International yacht racing began in 1851 in the US, and first contested as an Olympic sport at the 1900 Paris Games.
Rules and Objective
Sailors get points based on their finishing positions, and the top 10 compete in a final.

Equestrian Eventing

Origin
First included at the Paris Games in 1900, Eventing was initially created to test officers and horses for any possible challenges.
Rules and Objective
A rider who has the lowest number of penalties across the three disciplines wins.

Hockey

Origin
The oldest known ball and stick game dates back to 2000 BC, and has been a fixed Olympic sport since 1920 in Antwerp
Rules and Objective
The matches are divided into four 15-minute quarters. Goals can only be scored from within the 14.63m semi-circle that surrounds the goal.

Shooting

Origin
The sport has been practised for hundreds of years, and been included as an Olympic sport since the first modern Games in 1896
Rules and Objective
The score in the final round is added to the qualification round to determine the winner.

Canoe Sprint

Origin
The first official sporting events were created during the mid-19th century. It became an Olympic discipline in Berlin in 1936.
Rules and Objective
The boats are crewed by one, two or four athletes. Sprints are held over 200m, 500m and 1,000m long, straight courses.

Diving

Origin
Competitive diving was developed from gymnastics in Sweden and Germany in the 18th century. It became an Olympic sport in 1904.
Rules and Objective
All the scores are added up except the highest and lowest scores, and then multiplied by the degree of difficulty of the dive.