Brazil

As the first South American country to host the Summer Olympics, Brazil aims high – to be in the top 10, surpassing the 17 medals won at the London 2012 Olympics.

Sailing

Origin
International yacht racing began in 1851 in the US, and first contested as an Olympic sport at the 1900 Paris Games.
Rules and Objective
Sailors get points based on their finishing positions, and the top 10 compete in a final.

Athletics

Origin
Athletics are among the oldest of all sports and their roots can be traced to the ancient Greek Olympics.
Rules and Objective
The three main athletic events consist of running, jumping and throwing.

Volleyball

Origin
Invented by William G. Morgan at Springfield College in Massachusetts in 1895, and debuted at the Olympics in 1964.
Rules and Objective
The first team to win three sets out of five wins. 25 points per set except the fifth set (15 points).

Judo

Origin
A traditional Japanese wrestling sport developed by Dr Jigoro Kano in the 1880s, first appeared at the Games in 1964 in Tokyo.
Rules and Objective
Judokas can score through three types: Yuko, Wazari and Ippon. Kicking and punching are not permitted in Judo

Beach Volleyball

Origin
It was born on the beaches of Waikiki Beach in Hawaii in 1915, and was introduced as an official Olympic sport in 1996.
Rules and Objective
The first team to win two sets out of three wins. 21 points per set except the third set (15 points).

Swimming

Origin
It has existed since the Stone Age, but only became an organised sport in the early 19th century.
Rules and Objective
Swimmers start from blocks after the starting pistol is fired. Backstroke is the only stroke where swimmers start in the water rather than blocks.

Shooting

Origin
The sport has been practised for hundreds of years, and been included as an Olympic sport since the first modern Games in 1896
Rules and Objective
The score in the final round is added to the qualification round to determine the winner.

Equestrian Eventing

Origin
First included at the Paris Games in 1900, Eventing was initially created to test officers and horses for any possible challenges.
Rules and Objective
A rider who has the lowest number of penalties across the three disciplines wins.

Artistic Gymnastics

Origin
Introduced at the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. The term was created to distinguish free-flowing styles from techniques used in military training.
Rules and Objective
Judges score the athlete’s performance by the difficulty and technical quality of the athletes’ moves.

Football

Origin
Rooted in ancient China, the modern version began in medieval England. It first appeared at the Games in Paris in 1900.
Rules and Objective
Male players have an age limit of 23, but three ‘over-age’ players are allowed. No age limit for female players.