USA
The Americans failed to repeat their Olympic success at the Paralympics at London 2012. Having finished sixth, they will fight for second place in Rio in an attempt to stay on the heels of China.

Swimming

Origin
It has been a Paralympic sport ever since the first Games in 1960 in Rome.
Rules and Objective
Swimmers start from blocks after the starting pistol is fired. Backstroke is the only stroke where swimmers start in the water rather than blocks.

Athletics

Origin
Paralympic athletics have been competed at international events since 1952, and been part of the Paralympic Games since 1960.
Rules and Objective
The three main athletic events consist of running, jumping and throwing.

Track Cycling

Origin
Initially developed by visually impaired cyclists who competed using tandem bicycles, it was introduced as a Paralympic sport in Seoul in 1988.
Rules and Objective
There are five types of track race at the Olympics: keirin, omnium, sprint, team sprint and team pursuit.

Wheelchair Tennis

Origin
Originated in the US in the 1970’s, it has been contested as a Paralympics sport since the Barcelona 1992 Games.
Rules and Objective
The only rule difference from the Olympics is that the ball can touch the court twice before it is hit back over the net.

Archery

Origin
It was first contested among disabled people at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in 1948, and has been a Paralympic sport since the 1960 Rome Games.
Rules and Objective
Archers must shoot three arrows and only have 20 seconds for each shot.

Judo

Origin
Initially a martial art activity for practicing mobility, Judo was first included as a Paralympic sport at the 1988 Seoul Games.
Rules and Objective
In the Paralympics, judokas are not punished if they go outside the combat area.

Sitting Volleyball

Origin
It became a Paralympic sport at the Arnhem 1980 Games.
Rules and Objective
The first team that wins three out of five sets takes the game.

Rowing

Origin
Rowing wasn’t a Paralympic sport until the 2008 Beijing Games.
Rules and Objective
To prevent unfair advantage, the use of prosthetics and orthotics is regulated. Boats are adapted based on the rowers’ impairments.

Sailing

Origin
Debuted as a medal sport at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games after it was demonstrated at the Atlanta 1996 Games.
Rules and Objective
Sailors receive points based on their finishing positions – one for first, two for second and so on. The sailor with the lowest score wins.

Wheelchair Basketball

Origin
Developed by injured servicemen from World War II around 1946 in the US, it has been contested since the 1960 Rome Games.
Rules and Objective
Games have four 10-minute periods. Teams must shoot the ball within 24 seconds of possession.